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2016, Cilt 46, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 097-104
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The Problem of Antimicrobial Resistance in Intensive Care Units in Turkey
Pınar ÇIRALIGİL
Çukurova Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dalı
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Intensive care unit

Intensive care units (ICU) are parts of the hospitals which provide multidisciplinary services, and have the highest incidence of nosocomial infections relative to their bed occupancy rates.
Especially infections with multidrug-resistant organisms and intensive use of antibiotics cause serious problems in intensive care units. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended-spectrum betalactamase and carbapenemase producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and other members of the Enterobacteriacea, Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the resistant organisms responsible from nosocomial infections in ICUs. Factors such as invasive procedures performed on patients, severity of the disease and insufficient infection control measures all accelerate infection rates. Additionally, use of parenteral, extended spectrum antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins, antipseudomonal penicillins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones play an important role in the development of nosocomial infections. Infections due to antibiotic resistant organisms not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also lead to prolonged hospital stay, excessive costs and increase in severe medical complications.
Organisms that cause infections in ICU's and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles should be monitored and treatment protocols should be revised accordingly in order to provide evidence- based and effective empirical antimicrobial treatment and to take necessary measures against nosocomial infections in hospitals, especially in ICU's. By way of performing surveillance studies, actual problems can be detected and targeted therapies based on supportive cumulative antibiogram results can be applied and life-threatening infections in ICU's can be controlled.

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